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A wealth tax assessed mainly on non-Muslims led to the transfer or liquidation of many businesses owned by religious minorities.
This sudden, sharp rise in the city's population caused a large demand for housing, and many previously outlying villages and forests became engulfed into the metropolitan area of Istanbul.
Despite the myth that seven hills make up the city, there are in fact more than 50 hills within the city limits. The nearby North Anatolian Fault is responsible for much earthquake activity, although it doesn't physically pass through the city itself.
Istanbul has borderline Mediterranean climate Köppen Csa , humid subtropical climate Köppen Cfa and oceanic climate Köppen Cfb with generally cool winters and warm to hot summers mean temperature peaking at Istanbul's weather is strongly influenced by the Sea of Marmara to the south, and the Black Sea to the north.
This moderates temperature swings and produces a mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation. Lake-effect snow is common and forms when cold air, upon contact with the Black Sea, develops into moist and unstable air that ascends to form snow squalls along the lee shores of the Black Sea.
The Fatih district, which was named after Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Turkish : Fatih Sultan Mehmed , corresponds to what was, until the Ottoman conquest in , the whole of the city of Constantinople today is the capital district and called the historic peninsula of Istanbul on the southern shore of the Golden Horn , across the medieval Genoese citadel of Galata on the northern shore.
The Genoese fortifications in Galata were largely demolished in the 19th century, leaving only the Galata Tower , to make way for the northward expansion of the city.
But in the second half of the 20th century, the Asian side experienced major urban growth; the late development of this part of the city led to better infrastructure and tidier urban planning when compared with most other residential areas in the city.
Istanbul does not have a primary urban park, but it has several green areas. Along the European side, and close to the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge , is Emirgan Park , which was known as the Kyparades Cypress Forest during the Byzantine period.
The hectare acre park was later owned by Khedive Ismail Pasha of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan in the 19th century. Emirgan Park is known for its diversity of plants and an annual tulip festival is held there since Popular during the summer among Istanbulites is Belgrad Forest , spreading across 5, hectares 14, acres at the northern edge of the city.
The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive. Istanbul is primarily known for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, and despite its development as a Turkish city since , contains both Christian and ancient monuments.
There are three ancient monuments in the city. Built of porphyry, 35 m ft high, it came from Heliopolis, erected in CE to inaugurate the new Byzantine capital.
There are traces of the Byzantine era throughout the city, from ancient churches that were built over early Christian meeting places like Chora Church , Hagia Irene to public places like the Hippodrome, the Augustaion.
It is the Hagia Sophia, however, that fully conveys the period of Constantinople as a city without parallel in Christendom. Blue Mosque, another landmark of the city, faces Haghia Sophia in Sultanahmet Square.
Mehmet II built the original palace as his main residence and the seat of government. The imperial mosques include Fatih Mosque , Bayezid Mosque , Yavuz Selim Mosque , Süleymaniye Mosque , Sultan Ahmed Mosque the Blue Mosque , and Yeni Mosque , all of which were built at the peak of the Ottoman Empire, in the 16th and 17th centuries.
In the following centuries, and especially after the Tanzimat reforms, Ottoman architecture was supplanted by European styles. Since , the municipal boundaries of Istanbul have been coincident with the boundaries of its province.
The current city structure can be traced back to the Tanzimat period of reform in the 19th century, before which Islamic judges and imams led the city under the auspices of the Grand Vizier.
Following the model of French cities, this religious system was replaced by a mayor and a citywide council composed of representatives of the confessional groups millet across the city.
Small settlements adjacent to major population centers in Turkey, including Istanbul, were merged into their respective primary cities during the early s, resulting in metropolitan municipalities.
The Municipal Council is responsible for citywide issues, including managing the budget, maintaining civic infrastructure, and overseeing museums and major cultural centers.
District councils are chiefly responsible for waste management and construction projects within their respective districts. They each maintain their own budgets, although the metropolitan mayor reserves the right to review district decisions.
One-fifth of all district council members, including the district mayors, also represent their districts in the Municipal Council.
With the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Istanbul Province having equivalent jurisdictions, few responsibilities remain for the provincial government.
Similar to the MMI, the Istanbul Special Provincial Administration has a governor, a democratically elected decision-making body—the Provincial Parliament—and an appointed Executive Committee.
Mirroring the executive committee at the municipal level, the Provincial Executive Committee includes a secretary-general and leaders of departments that advise the Provincial Parliament.
Throughout most of its history, Istanbul has ranked among the largest cities in the world. By CE, Constantinople had somewhere between , and , people, edging out its predecessor, Rome, for the world's largest city.
It never returned to being the world's largest, but remained the largest city in Europe from to , when it was surpassed by London.
The Turkish Statistical Institute estimates that the population of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality was 15,, at the end of , hosting 19 percent of the country's population.
Istanbul ranks as the seventh-largest city proper in the world, and the second-largest urban agglomeration in Europe, after Moscow.
The high population growth mirrors an urbanization trend across the country, as the second and third fastest-growing OECD metropolises are the Turkish cities of Izmir and Ankara.
Istanbul experienced especially rapid growth during the second half of the 20th century, with its population increasing tenfold between and Istanbul's foreign population with a residence permit increased dramatically, from 43, in  to , in Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city throughout much of its history, but it has become more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman era.
Although the Kurdish presence in the city dates back to the early Ottoman period,  the majority of Kurds in the city originate from villages in eastern and southeastern Turkey.
Greeks and Armenians form the largest Christian population in the city. While Istanbul's Greek population was exempted from the population exchange with Greece, changes in tax status and the anti-Greek pogrom prompted thousands to leave.
Sephardic Jews settled in the city after their expulsion from Spain and Portugal in and Politically, Istanbul is seen as the most important administrative region in Turkey.
More recently, Istanbul and many of Turkey's metropolitan cities are following a trend away from the government and their right-wing ideology.
In and , large-scale anti-AKP government protests began in İstanbul and spread throughout the nation. The first government defeat in Istanbul occurred in the constitutional referendum , where Istanbul voted 'No' by The AKP government had supported a 'Yes' vote and won the vote nationally due to high support in rural parts of the country.
Similar trends and electoral successes for the opposition were also replicated in Ankara , Izmir , Antalya , Mersin , Adana and other metropolitan areas of Turkey.
Administratively, Istanbul is divided into 39 districts, more than any other province in Turkey. As a province, Istanbul sends 98 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey , which has a total of seats.
For the purpose of parliamentary elections, Istanbul is divided into three electoral districts ; two on the European side and one on the Asian side , electing 28, 35 and 35 MPs respectively.
Istanbul had the eleventh-largest economy among the world's urban areas in , and is responsible for 30 percent of Turkey's industrial output,  31 percent of GDP,  and 47 percent of tax revenues.
Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus strait, houses international ports that link Europe and Asia. Istanbul has been an international banking hub since the s,  and is home to the only stock exchange in Turkey.
Borsa Istanbul was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in Istanbul was historically known as a cultural hub, but its cultural scene stagnated after the Turkish Republic shifted its focus toward Ankara.
By the end of the 19th century, Istanbul had established itself as a regional artistic center, with Turkish, European, and Middle Eastern artists flocking to the city.
Despite efforts to make Ankara Turkey's cultural heart, Istanbul had the country's primary institution of art until the s.
Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and around the world in From this flagship festival came the International Istanbul Film Festival and the Istanbul International Jazz Festival in the early s.
With its focus now solely on music and dance, the Istanbul Festival has been known as the Istanbul International Music Festival since Istanbul has numerous shopping centers , from the historic to the modern.
The Grand Bazaar , in operation since , is among the world's oldest and largest covered markets. Galleria Ataköy ushered in the age of modern shopping malls in Turkey when it opened in Akmerkez was awarded the titles of "Europe's best" and "World's best" shopping mall by the International Council of Shopping Centers in and ; Istanbul Cevahir has been one of the continent's largest since opening in ; Kanyon won the Cityscape Architectural Review Award in the Commercial Built category in Istanbul is known for its historic seafood restaurants.
Because of their restaurants, historic summer mansions, and tranquil, car-free streets, the Prince Islands are a popular vacation destination among Istanbulites and foreign tourists.
Following the influx of immigrants from southeastern and eastern Turkey, which began in the s, the foodscape of the city has drastically changed by the end of the century; with influences of Middle Eastern cuisine such as kebab taking an important place in the food scene.
Istanbul has active nightlife and historic taverns , a signature characteristic of the city for centuries if not millennia.
Istanbul is home to some of Turkey's oldest sports clubs. Many of Istanbul's sports facilities have been built or upgraded since to bolster the city's bids for the Summer Olympic Games.
Atatürk Olympic Stadium , the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey, was completed in as an IAAF first-class venue for track and field.
All four stadiums are elite Category 4 formerly five-star UEFA stadiums. The Sinan Erdem Dome , among the largest indoor arenas in Europe, hosted the final of the FIBA World Championship , the IAAF World Indoor Championships , as well as the —12 Euroleague and —17 EuroLeague Final Fours.
Between and , Istanbul Park racing circuit hosted the annual Formula One Turkish Grand Prix. Istanbul was occasionally a venue of the F1 Powerboat World Championship , with the last race on the Bosphorus strait on 12—13 August Most state-run radio and television stations are based in Ankara, but Istanbul is the primary hub of Turkish media.
The industry has its roots in the former Ottoman capital, where the first Turkish newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi Calendar of Affairs , was published in Istanbul now has a wide variety of periodicals.
Most nationwide newspapers are based in Istanbul, with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions. Several smaller newspapers, including popular publications like Cumhuriyet , Milliyet and Habertürk are also based in Istanbul.
Radio broadcasts in Istanbul date back to , when Turkey's first radio transmission came from atop the Central Post Office in Eminönü.
Control of this transmission, and other radio stations established in the following decades, ultimately came under the state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation TRT , which held a monopoly on radio and television broadcasts between its founding in and Offering a range of content from educational programming to coverage of sporting events, Radio 2 is the most popular radio station in Turkey.
Among Turkey's first private stations, and the first featuring foreign popular music, was Istanbul's Metro FM The state-run Radio 3 , although based in Ankara, also features English-language popular music, and English-language news programming is provided on NTV Radyo TRT-Children is the only TRT television station based in Istanbul.
Istanbul-based Star TV was the first private television network to be established following the end of the TRT monopoly; Star TV and Show TV also based in Istanbul remain highly popular throughout the country, airing Turkish and American series.
The BBC has a regional office in Istanbul, assisting its Turkish-language news operations, and the American news channel CNN established the Turkish-language CNN Türk there in Galatasaray High School was established in and is the oldest public high school in Turkey.
Some of the most renowned and highly ranked universities in Turkey are in Istanbul. Istanbul University , the nation's oldest institute of higher education, dates back to and its dental, law, medical schools were founded in the nineteenth century.
Istanbul has more than 93 colleges and universities,  with , students  enrolled in Istanbul is also home to several conservatories and art schools, including Mimar Sinan Academy of Fine Arts , founded in Istanbul's first water supply systems date back to the city's early history, when aqueducts such as the Valens Aqueduct deposited the water in the city's numerous cisterns.
The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in and the first post office, the Imperial Post Office, opened near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque.
By , the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the Ottoman Empire had been established.
In , Istanbul had hospitals , of which were private. Their prevalence has increased significantly over the last decade, as the percentage of outpatients using private hospitals increased from 6 percent to 23 percent between and The high quality of healthcare, especially in private hospitals, has contributed to a recent upsurge in medical tourism to Turkey with a 40 percent increase between and Istanbul's motorways network are the O-1 , O-2 , O-3 , O-4 and O By the end of , the total length of Istanbul Province's toll motorways network otoyollar is km and highways network devlet yollari is km, totaling km of expressway roads minimum 2x2 lanes , excluding secondary roads and urban streets.
The O-1 forms the city's inner ring road , traversing the 15 July Martyrs First Bosphorus Bridge , and the O-2 is the city's outer ring road, crossing the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Second Bosphorus Bridge.
The O-2 continues west to Edirne and the O-4 continues east to Ankara. The O-2, O-3, and O-4 are part of European route E80 the Trans-European Motorway between Portugal and the Iran—Turkey border.
The completed section of highway crosses the Bosphorus Strait via the Yavuz Sultan Selim Third Bosphorus Bridge , entered service on 26 August Environmentalist groups worry that the third bridge will endanger the remaining green areas to the north of Istanbul.
Istanbul's local public transportation system is a network of commuter trains , trams , funiculars , metro lines, buses, bus rapid transit , and ferries.
Fares across modes are integrated, using the contactless Istanbulkart , introduced in , or the older Akbil electronic ticket device. The Istanbul Metro comprises five lines the M1 , M2 , M3 and M6 on the European side, and the M4 and M5 on the Asian side with several other lines the M7 , M8 , M9 and M11 and extensions under construction.
Marmaray rail line has International rail service from Istanbul launched in , with a line between Bucharest and Istanbul's Sirkeci Terminal , which ultimately became famous as the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.
Istanbul's main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15, buses and , passengers , serving destinations as distant as Frankfurt.
Istanbul had three large international airports, two of which are currently in active service for commercial passenger flights.
The largest is the new Istanbul Airport , opened in in the Arnavutköy district to the northwest of the city center, on the European side, near the Black Sea coast.
All scheduled commercial passenger flights were transferred from Istanbul Atatürk Airport to Istanbul Airport on 6 April , following the closure of Istanbul Atatürk Airport for scheduled passenger flights.
After its closure to commercial flights in , it was briefly used by cargo aircraft and the official state aircraft owned by the Turkish government, until the demolition of its runway began in It handled Dominated by low-cost carriers , Istanbul's second airport has rapidly become popular, especially since the opening of a new international terminal in ;  the airport handled Air pollution in Turkey is acute in İstanbul with cars, buses and taxis causing frequent urban smog ,  as it is one of the few European cities without a low-emission zone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Largest city in Turkey. For other uses, see Istanbul disambiguation.
Megacity in Marmara, Turkey. Clockwise from top: the Golden Horn between Karaköy and Sarayburnu within the historic areas ; Maiden's Tower ; a nostalgic tram on İstiklal Avenue ; Levent business district; Galata Tower ; Ortaköy Mosque in front of the Bosphorus Bridge ; and Hagia Sophia.
UNESCO World Heritage Site. Main article: Names of Istanbul. Main article: History of Istanbul. See also: Timeline of Istanbul history.
Main article: Constantinople. Two aerial photos showing the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, taken from a German zeppelin on 19 March Further information: Geography of Turkey and Geology of Turkey.
See also: Historic Areas of Istanbul and List of urban centers in Istanbul. See also: Architecture of Istanbul , Ottoman architecture , and Architecture of Turkey.
Main articles: List of districts of Istanbul and List of neighbourhoods of Istanbul. Main article: Demographics of Istanbul.
See also: Demographics of Turkey. Main article: Religion in Istanbul. See also: Assyrians in Turkey , Kurds in Turkey , Bosniaks in Turkey , Greeks in Turkey , Armenians in Turkey , Jews in Turkey , and Albanians in Turkey.
Main article: Economy of Istanbul. Main article: Culture of Istanbul. See also: List of sport facilities in Istanbul. Atatürk Olympic Stadium 2.
Türk Telekom Stadium 3. Vodafone Park. Further information: Education in Turkey. Main article: Utilities in Istanbul.
Further information: Telecommunications in Turkey and Health care in Turkey. Main article: Public transport in Istanbul. The suspension bridges on the Bosphorus strait.
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge. Istanbul's nostalgic and modern tram systems. Since Istanbul is a transcontinental city, Moscow is the largest city entirely within Europe.
Historians have disputed the precise year the city was founded. Commonly cited is the work of 5th-century-BCE historian Herodotus , which says the city was founded seventeen years after Chalcedon ,  which came into existence around BCE.
Eusebius concurs with BCE as the year Chalcedon was founded, but places Byzantion's establishment in BCE.
The foundation date of Chalcedon is itself subject to some debate; while many sources place it in BC,  others put it in BCE  or even BCE with Byzantion's establishment placed in BCE.
The ranges of values between and are due to Morris , which also does a comprehensive analysis of sources, including Chandler ; Morris notes that many of Chandler's estimates during that time seem too large for the city's size, and presents smaller estimates.
Chandler disagrees with Turan on the population of the city in the mids with the former suggesting , in , but Turan, p.
Turan's figures, as well as the figure,  come from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The drastic increase in population between and is largely due to an enlargement of the city's limits see the Administration section.
Explanations for population changes in pre-Republic times can be inferred from the History section. The whole city was generally known as Constantinople or under other names.
See Names of Istanbul for further information. Türk Telekom Arena is noted as an elite UEFA stadium by its architects.
Istanbul Buyuksehir Belediyesi. Retrieved 4 February Hava Forumu. Hava Durumu Forumu. Turkish Statistical Institute. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
OECD Publishing. Retrieved 2 December Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. The Routledge Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English 2nd ed.
In Kazhdan, Alexander ed. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Nach einer Verwaltungsreform sind alle Landkreise direkt dem Oberbürgermeister von Istanbul unterstellt.
Die ehemaligen Bürgermeister der Kommunen Belediye wurden auf den Rang eines Muhtars runtergestuft. Daher sind die 39 Landkreise gleichzeitig Stadtbezirke.
Die Provinz Istanbul stellt 98 der Abgeordneten des Türkischen Parlaments und wird in drei Wahlbezirke unterteilt, wobei sich der erste auf der asiatischen, die beiden anderen auf der europäischen Seite der Stadt befinden.In der Region wird jährlich das Erdbeer-Festival veranstaltet. Bingöl kam nacheinander unter die Herrschaft der verschiedensten Reiche. Education Language reform Health and welfare Individual, family and gender relations LGBT rights Marriage Status of women Population Population distribution and settlement in Turkey Migration Government policies Religious life. Im Folgenden sehen Sie die wichtigsten Vorwahlen nach Türkei und einige Länderinformationen. Bloomberg Markets Magazine. Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning. Infobase Publishing21 May Dabei lassen Sie die führende 0 der Ortsvorwahl weg. Retrieved 4 May Hadrianopulis ist die Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen Borna Coric Flugsimulator Gratis europäischen Teil der Türkei.