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The first Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus sometimes referred to as Tarquin the Elder had a Corinthian father.
After moving to Rome, he became friendly with Ancus Marcius and was named as guardian to Marcius's sons. As king, he gained ascendance over neighboring tribes and defeated the Sabines, Latins, and Etruscans in battle.
Tarquin created new senators and expanded Rome. He also established the Roman Circus Games. While there is some uncertainty about his legacy, it is said that he undertook the construction of the great Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, started the construction of the Cloaca Maxima a massive sewer system , and expanded the role of Etruscans in Roman governance.
Servius Tullius was the son-in-law of Tarquinius Priscus. He instituted the first census in Rome, which was used to determine the number of representatives each area had in the Senate.
Servius Tullius also divided the Roman citizens into tribes and fixed the military obligations of 5 census-determined classes.
The tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus or Tarquin the Proud was the last Etruscan or any king of Rome. According to legend, he came to power as a result of the assassination of Servius Tullius and ruled as a tyrant.
He and his family were so evil, say the stories, that they were forcibly ousted by Brutus and other members of the Senate.
The first form of government in Rome was monarchical according to the archaeological findings and the legends. In the excavations carried out in the Roman Forum , in the Regia, which was the former royal residence, a glass of bucchero was founding dating from the seventh century with the inscription Rex king.
The word regei was also found on the Lapis Niger, an ancient shrine in the Roman Forum. An inscription found beneath the black marble is considered to be a law.
It is also possible to make out when Rome was a kingdom thanks to other institutions in the Lazio region. For example, the rex Nemorensis king of the forest , a priest of the goddess Diana who looked after the forests from the sixth century BC until the Roman Empire.
The senate's main function was to carry out and administer the wishes of the king. After Romulus, Rome's first legendary king, Roman kings were elected by the people of Rome, sitting as a Curiate Assembly , who voted on the candidate that had been nominated by a chosen member of the senate called an interrex.
Candidates for the throne could be chosen from any source. For example, one such candidate, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus , was originally a citizen and migrant from a neighboring Etruscan city-state.
The people of Rome, sitting as the Curiate Assembly, could then either accept or reject the nominated candidate-king.
The insignia of the king was twelve lictors wielding the fasces , a throne of a Curule chair , the purple Toga Picta , red shoes, and a white diadem around the head.
Only the king could wear a purple toga. The supreme power of the state was vested in the rex , whose position gave the following powers:.
Beyond his religious authority, the king was invested with the supreme military, executive, and judicial authority through the use of imperium.
The imperium of the king was held for life and protected him from ever being brought to trial for his actions. As the sole holder of imperium in Rome at the time, the king possessed ultimate executive power and unchecked military authority as the commander-in-chief of all Rome's legions.
His executive power and his sole imperium allowed him to issue decrees with the force of law. Also, the laws that kept citizens safe from the misuse of magistrates holding imperium did not exist during the time of the kings.
The king was also empowered to appoint or nominate all officeholders. The king would appoint a tribunus celerum to serve both as the tribune of Ramnes tribe in Rome and also as the commander of the king's personal bodyguard, the Celeres.
The king was required to appoint the tribune upon entering office, and the tribune left office upon the king's death.
The tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it. Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi , who acted as the warden of the city.
When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers, even to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city.
The king was the sole person empowered to appoint patricians to the Senate. The king's imperium granted him both military powers as well as qualified him to pronounce legal judgment in all cases as the chief justice of Rome.
Although he could assign pontiffs to act as minor judges in some cases, he had supreme authority in all cases brought before him, both civil and criminal.
This made the king supreme in times of both war and peace. While some writers believed there was no appeal from the king's decisions, others believed that a proposal for appeal could be brought before the king by any patrician during a meeting of the Curiate Assembly.
To assist the king, a council advised the king during all trials, but this council had no power to control the king's decisions.
Also, two criminal detectives Quaestores Parridici were appointed by him as well as a two-man criminal court Duumviri Perduellionis which oversaw for cases of treason.
Under the kings, the Senate and Curiate Assembly had very little power and authority; they were not independent bodies in that they possessed the right to meet together and discuss questions of state.
They could only be called together by the king and could only discuss the matters the king laid before them. While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had been submitted by the king, the Senate was effectively an honorable council.
It could advise the king on his action but, by no means, could prevent him from acting. The only thing that the king could not do without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assembly was to declare war against a foreign nation.
These issues effectively allowed the King to more or less rule by decree with the exception of the above-mentioned affairs.
Whenever a Roman king died, Rome entered a period of interregnum. Supreme power in the state would be devolved to the Senate, which had the task of finding a new king.
The Senate would assemble and appoint one of its own members as the interrex to serve for a period of five days with the sole purpose of nominating the next king of Rome.
After the five-day period, the interrex would appoint with the Senate's consent another Senator for another five-day term.
This process would continue until the election of a new king. Once the interrex found a suitable nominee for the kingship, he would bring the nominee before the Senate and the Senate would examine him.
Once a candidate was proposed to the Curiate Assembly, the people of Rome could either accept or reject the King-elect.
If accepted, the King-elect did not immediately take office: two additional acts had to take place before he was invested with the full regal authority and power.
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Conrad II. Henry III. Henry V. Lothair III. Frederick I. Otto IV. Frederick II. Henry Raspe. Richard of Cornwall.
Candidacy opposed by Saxony, Brandenburg and Trier who supported Alfonso X of Castile. Crowned in Aachen in Alfonso X of Castile.
Henry VII. Frederick the Fair. Louis IV. Charles IV. Günther von Schwarzburg. Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Frederick III.The list of the seven kings of Rome, or eight if we include Titus Tatius, is as follows: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus. No historian doubts the existence of the last three kings, since there is clear evidence of their reigns in Rome. After Charles V, Holy Roman Emperors assumed the title of "king of the Romans" at the same time as being elected emperor. The titles of "Roman Emperor elect" (erwählter Römischer Kaiser) and "king in Germany" (König in Germanien) continued to be used as part of the full style of the emperors until As king, he gained ascendance over neighboring tribes and defeated the Sabines, Latins, and Etruscans in battle. Tarquin created new senators and expanded Rome. He also established the Roman Circus Games. Roman Empire, the ancient empire, centred on the city of Rome, that was established in 27 bce following the demise of the Roman Republic and continuing to the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century ce. A brief treatment of the Roman Empire follows. For. But the Roman people regarded their emperors as the equivalent of kings, even though the very first emperor Augustus the Great absolutely refused to be seen as a monarch. The age of the Roman Republic came to an end with the death of Julius Caesar, and Augustus marked the beginning of the Roman Empire that lasted from 27 BC to AD.